Notes
1.
To avoid doublecounting, political deaths are excluded and the only numbers included are the 400,000 individuals
whom Margolin estimated died in the systemic failures of forced ruralization. For more comprehensive estimates
of rural deaths, Ben Kierman estimates a much larger number although his numbers are almost impossible to
untangle from the numbers of political dissidents, and thus they are not included here.  
Margolin, J. (1999). Cambodia: The Country of Disconcerting
Crimes. In
The Black Book of Communism (2nd ed., pp. 591.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Kiernan, Ben. (2014). Table 4. Approximate Death Tolls in
Democratic Kampuchea, 1975-1979.
The Pol Pot Regime:
Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia Under the Khmer
Rouge, 1975-79
. Yale University Press. (2014). p. 458. Print.
2.
Wang Weizhi, Contemporary Chinese Population,.Xu Dixin, editor.
Reported by Jasper Becker. In
Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine.
New York: The Free Press, 1996. 270. Print.
This figure includes only those villagers killed in the countryside during the Great Leap Forward and does not
purport to be comprehensive (Wang 270).  It is important to note that these deaths were
not the result of
drought; they were primarily the result of governmental malfeasance and, secondarily, systemic failure of the
Marxist imposition on agriculture.  Please note the following:

  • According to journalist Yang Jisheng, the famine was "a tragedy unprecedented in world
history for tens of millions of people to starve to death and to resort to cannibalism during a period of
normal climate patterns with no wars or epidemics" (14).
  • One witness reported that literally tons of fruit were rotting in 1959 although the State
issued the order "absolutely no opening the granary door even if people are dying of star-
vation" (Chang and Halliday 429-430).
  • The State exported 7 million tons of grain from 1958-1959, which would have provided
840 calories per day for 38 million people--easily the difference between life and death
(Chang and Halliday 429-430).
  • Chang and Halliday also write of, "meat, cooking oil, eggs, and other foodstuffs that were
exported in very large quantities.  Had this food not been exported (and instead distributed
according to humane criteria), very probably not a single person in China would have had
to die of hunger" (430).
  • Due to systemic failures in the centrally controlled economy, the rural areas that produced
the most food were given, per capita, the least to eat (Meng, Qian, and Yared 1568-1570).
Meng, Xin, Nancy Qian, and Pierre Yared. "The Institutional Causes
of China's Great Famine, 1959-1961."
Review of Economic Studies 82
(2015): 1568-570. Web. 21 July 2016.
Jisheng, Yang. Tombstone. Trans. Stacy Mosher and Guo Jian. Ed.
Edward Friedman, Guo Jian, and Stacy Mosher. New York: Farrar,
Straus and Giroux, 2012. 14 Print.  
Chang, Jung, and Jon Halliday. The Unknown Mao. New York:
Anchor, 2006. 429-430. Print.
Fontaine, Pascal. "Communism in Latin America: The Sandinistas and the
Indians." Trans. Array
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror,
Repression
. 4th. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. 668-669. Print.
The Truth and Reconciliation Committee. Rptd. by British Broadcasting
Corporation, . "Coca Country." Amazon: Bruce Parry Explores the Greatest
River on Earth. n.d. n. Retrieved Web. 11 Aug. 2014.
<http://www.bbc.co.uk/amazon/sites/cocacountry/pages/content.shtml>.
While precise figures are not known, estimates range anywhere from 1-5 million.  3 million
is merely a rounded average.
rptd.by Margolin, Jean-Louis in The Black Book of Communism.
"China: A Long March into Night." Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, 1999.  479. Print.
Information Office of the State Council, Tibet—Its Ownership and Human Rights Situation,
Beijing, September 22, 1992 as rptd. by Department of Information & International Relations,
Central Tibetan Administration, in
Tibet Under Communist China, p. 10
17.
rptd. by Brown, David. "Vietnam Quickly Shutters
‘Land Reform’ Exhibit." Asia Sentinel . 13 Sep 2014.
Online.
While precise figures are not known, 100,000 is considered a minimum;  300,000
a maximum. From these numbers the Party itself concluded that some of their
victims had been mislabeled as landowners.
While precise figures are not known, estimates range anywhere from 300,000-500,000.  
The number 400,000 is merely a rounded average.
rptd.by Nicolas Werth in The Black Book of Communism. "The Dirty War."
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  102. Print.
archived photo, courtesy of  Church of the Assumption Website (translated).  
http://klin-demianovo.ru/wp-content/upload/2012/01/x_a4b1f549.jpg
This figure has been derived from a study commissioned by Boris Yeltsin in 1995 (Luxmoore 1999).
9.
Not a firm mortality figure, the estimate is based on the most conservative
number from various reports. Though numbers in the reports vary, all agree
that Cambodian  monks were nearly driven extinct. According to Jean-Louis
Margolin in the
Black Book of Communism, the number of Buddhist monks
was 60,000 at the beginning of the Khmer Rouge regime, and by 1979, only
1,000 were still alive. This loss would include those who willingly defrocked,
as well as those few to die of natural causes between 1975-79.  
Margolin, Jean-Louis in The Black Book of Communism.
"Cambodia: The Country of Disconcerting Crimes." Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  p. 591. Print.
When interviewed by freelance writer Robert Hirschfield, Cambodian
monk Sol Mang, a first-hand survivor of the Khmer Rouge, stated
"“The Khmer Rouge killed almost all the monks in Cambodia. Before
the Khmer Rouge, there were 50,000 monks. The Khmer Rouge left
only 3,000 alive. I didn’t want to see Buddhism die out in my
country, so I became a monk.”

Here, I err on the conservative side and choose to include
Hirschfield's figures rather than Margolin's.
Hirschfield, Robert. "The Khmer Rouge killed
almost all the monks in Cambodia."
Matador Network.
13 Oct 2011: n. page. Web. 28 Nov. 2014.
Luxmoore, Jonathan. "The Iron Curtain's secrets: Communist persecution
of Christians revealed."
The Tablet. 23 Jan. 1999. Web. available:
>https://web.archive.org/web/20150920151325/http://archive.thetablet.co
.uk/article/ 23rd-january-1999/6/the-iron-curtains-secrets
Paczkowski, Andrzej. "Poland, the 'Enemy Nation'." Trans. Murphy
and Kramer
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression.
4th. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. 382. Print.
Rabinovich, M. . Struggle Against Religion Is
Struggle for Socialism!. 1930s. Photograph. The
State Museum of the History of Religion, Saint
Petersburg, Russia. Web. 22 Dec 2014. <http://gmir.ru/eng/
expo/vistavki/vistavka_archive/36/860.html>.
16.
Антирелигиозная Азбука--
1933. 2011. Photograph. Web
ParkWeb. 23 Dec 2014.
available <http://www.webpark.
ru/comment/antireligioznaya-
azbuka-1933-god
Patterson, M. (2002). "Telling the story of a brutal time." National
Catholic Reporter
, 38(12), 4-5. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/
docview/215308159?accountid=11259
Cabrita, Jodao M.. Mozambique : The Tortuous Road to
Democracy
. Gordonsville, VA, USA: Palgrave Macmillan,
2001. ProQuest ebrary, pp. 121-123. Web. 29 December 2014.
Cabrita cites the Jehova's Witnesses publication Awake!, which reported,
"'Almost all the 7000 witnesses of Jehovah's Witnesses in Mozambique
had been imprisoned'. A house-to-house hunt was launched to find and
arrest men, women and children.  Men were arrested at their places of
work without being able to contact their families. In many cases, says
Awake!, the arrests were accompanied by 'brutal beatings'. Referring
specifically to events in Gaza,
Awake!, reported the imprisonment of
two small congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses ordered by the provin-
cial governor who had them beaten.  The magazine mentioned an incident
in the town of Magude, where 'thirteen Witnesses were arrested, beaten
and forced to dig up trees with their fingers.  Then their legs and arms
were tied and they were rolled around like drums'.

"One of the 'final destinations' where the Jehovah's Witnesses were
sent was the Naisseko re-education camp in Niassa.   The treatment
meted out to them at the camp was the subject of a government weekly
editorial, which said that the witnesses 'were tortured, their arms tied
with ropes soaked in salt'.  Many of the Witnesses 'were crippled for life'."
According to Pacsal Fontaine in The Black Book of Communism; 11,000 tribesmen
constitutes an average of the estimated range (7,000 to 15,000) driven to Honduras;
while 10,000 were driven inland, and  "as many as"14,000 were imprisoned in Nicaragua .
Werth, Nicolas. The Black Book of Communism. 2nd ed.
Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999. 155. Print.
For our purposes, most kulaks are numbered in the villager category--resulting in a
lower number than that which is seen in other historical accounts.
Luxmoore, Jonathan. "The Iron Curtain's secrets: Communist persecution
of Christians revealed."
The Tablet. 23 Jan. 1999. Web. available: >https://web.
archive.org/web/20150920151325/http://archive.thetablet.co.uk/article/23rd-
january-1999/6/the-iron-curtains-secrets
Lindtjorn, B., & Kloos, H. (1993). Famine and Malnutrition. In H. Kloos
& Z. Zein (Eds.), The Ecology of Health and Disease in Ethiopia (p. 103).
Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
3.
Foucher, M. reported by Santamaria, Y. (1999). Afrocommunism: Ethio-
pia, Angola, and Mozambique. In
The Black Book of Communism (2nd ed.,
p. 694). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
The number 250,000 is an average of estimated deaths resulting from an attempt to force nomads into collect-
ives in a policy referred to as "villagization."  As geographer Michael Foucher, as well as international health
researcher Bernt Lindtjørn, contends--these deaths were primarily the results of socialist policies and, moreover,
did not occur in drought-stricken areas.    
According to Nicolas Werth in The Black Book of Communism, the number includes the death of 4 million
peasants in Ukraine and one million deaths, mostly nomadic, in Kazakhstan (Werth 167). Deducted from
the total 6 million deaths given elsewhere in the book (Courtois 10), this figure leaves approximately
one million famine deaths that occurred in more urban areas, such as Kharkiv, Krasnodar, Stavropol, and
others (Werth 167).  Figures from the earlier famine in the 1920s have not been included because there is
a legitimate, if weak, argument that emphasizes the role of natural causes and war-time mobilization in the famine.
4.
Courtois, Stephane. "Introduction: The Crimes of Communism." The
Black Book of Communism
. Trans. Jonathan Murphy and Mark Kramer.
Second ed. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999. 10. Print.
Werth, Nicolas. "A State against Its People: The Great Famine."
The Black Book of Communism. Trans. Jonathan Murphy and
Mark Kramer. Second ed. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999. 160-167. Print.
5.
6.
7.
8.
10.  
11.  
12.  
Kumar, Janugrah. "North Korea Appears to Be Starving, Mass
Killing Prison Inmates,"
Christian Post. 8 Dec. 2014. Available
< http://www.christianpost.com/news/north-korea-appears-to-be-
starving-mass-killing-prison-inmates-130806/
13.
14.
15.
Margolin, Jean-Louis and Pierre Rigoulot.
"Tibet:Genocide on the Rooftop of the World'."
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes,
Terror, Repression
. 4th. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 2001. 544. Print.
18.
Children's Anti-religion Alphabet
Book
:  Soviet Primer, 1933 (16)
Soviet Propaganda Poster:
"The struggle against religion is the struggle for socialism!!" (17)
19.
Council of Europe: Secretariat of the Framework Convention for
the Protection of National Minorities,
Report Submitted by Bulgaria
Pursuant to Article 25, Paragraph 1 of the Framework Convention
for the Protection of National Minorities
, 9 April 2003, ACFC/SR
(2003)001, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4254ebdb4.html
[accessed 5 August 2016]  11-12.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
Perlez, Jane. "A Stalinist Dowager in Her Bunker." New York Times, Late
Edition (East Coast) ed.: 4. Jul 08 1997. ProQuest. Web. 23 Jan. 2016 .
Santamaria, Yves, The Black Book of Communism.
"Afrocommunism: Ethiopia, Angola, and Mozambique."
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  700. Print.
25.
Ganev,Venelin I., Sharlanov, Dinyu,  and Hannah Arendt Center. Crimes Committed
by the Communist Regime in Bulgaria
. PDF.
26.
27.
Margolin asserts that, on the average, estimates of executions are approximately 500,000.  
He then cites Henri Locard reporting a range of 400,000-600,000 prison deaths, which also
averages 500,000. Individuals dying due to ruralization are classified as "villagers" for our
purposes; thus they are not classified as "dissidents" in order to avoid doublecounting.
Margolin, J. (1999). Cambodia: The Country of Disconcerting Crimes.
In
The Black Book of Communism (2nd ed.), pp. 591. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press.
28.
As this figure is "likely" an underestimate, it would seem prudent to first acknowledge
the weaknesses in the calculation as well as to explicate the methodology:

1) The number includes no deaths following 1990.
2) The number relies on a figure prefaced by Jean-Louis Margolin's admission that
"although the estimates are quite speculative, it is clear that there were between 6 million
and 10 million deaths as a direct result of the Communist actions" (463).  While a 40%
margin of error is no small thing, our figure rests on the lowest number: 6 million.
Margolin then states that "perhaps" 20 million "'counter-revolutionaries'" died in
prison, a figure that we rely on, and a figure that does not include deaths from the
civil war (464). We have added 20 million urban deaths (rounded from 20.5)
from the Great Leap Forward, which consists of the most commonly estimated total
of 40 million deaths (Wang 271) minus the 19.5 million villager deaths (Wang 270)
counted among the Chinese villager totals (Wang 270 / Annotation 2). Three million
deaths have been subtracted to prevent doublecounting the deaths of Chinese
kulaks--a total that was itself a rounded average of Margolin's estimated range
of 1-5 million (479).
Margolin, Jean-Louis,  The Black Book of Communism.
"China: A Long March into Night." Harvard University
Press, Cambridge, 1999.  479. Print.
29.
The book puts the number of executed prisoners at 15,000-17,000; thus the
16,000 figure is an average. These figures do not include any executions since 2000.
Fontaine, Pascal., The Black Book of Communism. "The
Third World: Communism in Latin America" Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  664. Print.
30.
Fontaine, Pascal., The Black Book of Communism. "The
Third World: Communism in Latin America" Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  657-658. Print.
Home
Wang Weizhi, Contemporary Chinese Population,.Xu Dixin, editor.
Reported by Jasper Becker. In
Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine.
New York: The Free Press, 1996. 270-271. Print.