51.
Press, Associated. "POLES REMEMBER 1956 POZNAN RIOT." Boston Globe
(pre-1997 Fulltext): 1. Jun 28 1982. ProQuest. Web. 21 Mar. 2015 .
44.
Paczkowski, Andrzej. "Poland, the 'Enemy Nation'." Trans. Murphy and
Kramer
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. 4th.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. 386-387. Print.
Smith, James F. "Left-Wing Unions Prove Tough Adversary for Peru's Maoist
Guerrilla Movement."
Los Angeles Times 17 Aug. 1989. Web. 21 Jan. 2015.
<http://articles.latimes.com/1989-08-17/news/mn-744_1_union-movement>.
50.
The 101 figure is derived from several sources reporting on several related instances.
While precise figures are not known, the Associated Press's estimates for Poznan range
from 53 to 74.  The number 65 is merely a rounded average. The reasons for the demon-
strations are taken from the
Poznan website.
"Reasons for the outbreak - Poznań June 1956 uprising" - Poznan.pl
http://www.poznan.pl/mim/czerwiec56/en/reasons-for-the-outbreak,p,3043.html
As Dr. Iwona Zielinska-- of the Centre for Criminological Research--reports,
in the 1970s the Polish Security Apparatus (SA) apprehended homosexuals
through sting operations and blackmailed them to inform on "subversive
acquaintances." Indeed, this has been cited as the reason Michael Foucoult
left the country.  The numbers affected by this operation are not available.






The 11,000 figure pertains to "Operation Hyacinth" the following decade.  As reported
in Lisa Downing and Robert Gillete's book
Queer in Europe, homosexuals were apprehended,
forced to sign confessions, interrogated for personal information, and their names, along
with other personal details, were kept in a database.
49.
Siegelbaum, Lewis. "1961: Novocherkassk Massacre." Seventeen
Moments in Soviet History
2014. Online.
According to official figures reported by historian Andrzej Paczkowski, 45 workers were
killed during protests on the Baltic coast in 1970. Moreover, police beatings were in the thousands.
"Queer in Poland." Queer in Europe. Ed. Lisa Downing and
Robert Gillett. Farnham: Ashgate Limited, 2011. 161. Print.
Zielinska, Iwona. "Who Is Afraid of Sexual Minorities?
Homosexuals, Moral Panic and the Exercise of Social Control."
(2011).
The University of Sheffield. Web. 22 June 2015.
<http://www.webcitation.org/5wMX7ip2H>.
46.
43.
According to journalist Stefan Schultz, gays were imprisoned or even
executed during the Cultural Revolution, and homosexuality was illegal
until 1997. These facts are corroborated by the International Gay and
Lesbian Human Rights Commission who document the fact of gay imprison-
ment, as well as the fact  of conditions so harsh that 18 Chinese individuals, even
as recently as the late 1990s, were given U.S. asylum  
due to homosexual persecution.  

Ultimately, considering the sheer numbers of persecuted individuals within groups
targeted by the Cultural Revolution (eg., the intelligentsia, who comprised a sizable
percentage of more than a million persecuted Chinese), it is reasonable to assume that
any such targeted groups would face violence, imprisonment, or--at the very least--
nearly total repression. Because of a paucity of records, it is unlikely that the numbers
of Chinese homosexuals facing persecution will ever be known. All that can be said with
certainty is that persecution at the hands of the government did take place.
International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commision [sic]
Country Packet Supporting Documentation for Asylum Claims,
China #4: Status of Sexual Minoritie
s. New York, 1997.
35, 42, 57, 85. Online.  Available > https://web.archive.org/web
/20120326071821/ http://www.asylumlaw.org/docs/sexualminorities/
China%204% 20SO%20%5B97-2000%5D.pdf
Schultz, Stefan. "Gay in China: Suffering in a Marriage of Convenience."
Spiegal Online International. 8 Mar. 2013. Web. 11 Aug. 2015.
Fuente: AFP. “Sendero Luminoso Amenaza a Los Gays De Peru.” Perfil.com:Internacional.
20 May 2007. Web. 25 Feb. 2016.
31.
According to Bartosek, 43,000 dissidents died in prison
and 736 were outright executed; thus 44,000 is rounded.
Bartosek, Karel, The Black Book of Communism. "The
Other Europe: Central and Southeastern Europe." Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  408. Print.
This figure includes only political prisoners who were killed in 1977-1978 as reported
in trials in Addis Ababa (p. 690). In order to avoid counting military deaths, none of
the 80,000 individuals who were killed in the "Total War" declared against secessionists
in 1978-1980 are counted, despite the fact that many of the casualties were civilians (692).  
For this reason, 10,000 is a lower-end estimate.
Santamaria, Yves, The Black Book of Communism. "Afro-
communism: Ethiopia, Angola, and Mozambique." Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  Print.
32.
33.
According to historian Tamas Stark, the approximate number of deported Hungarian
prisoners was between 500,000 and 626,000
(158), and the total number of civilian
prisoners between 100,000 and  200,000
(159). We are thus working with an approx-
imation of 150,000 civilians. Stark concludes that according to registration and transport
records, approximately 1/3 of all prisoners died  (i.e., roughly 200,000 of the roughly
600,000 prisoners referenced earlier)
(167). A 1/3 fatality rate would put the number of
deceased civilians at 50,000.
Stark, Tamas. "'Malenki Robot' – Hungarian Forced
Labourers in the Soviet Union (1944–1955)."
Minorities
Research: Minorities History.
2005. pdf.
34.
The figures are obtained as follows. According to John Norton Moore, approximately
2,000 political dissidents were killed by the Sandinistas (COSEP study rptd. by Moore
143). Roger Miranda and William Ratliff then cite the "disappearances" of 3,000 diss-
idents (193). As of 1996, more than 1,100 (rounded here to 1,000) of these disappear-
ances were yet to be accounted for and thus were presumed dead. (Trigueros, as reported
by Rohter). Between More and Trigueros' figures, the number 3,000 is obtained. As is the
case throughout the website, military and war deaths are not included.

In terms of the numbers of dissidents tortured, J. Michael Waller refers to "atrocities" in
which  "allegations include widespread torture, kidnapping, rape, mutilation and murder"
and he quotes Nicaraguan Permanent Human Rights Commission chief Lino Hernandez
as having evidence for 14,000 cases.  To avoid any possibility of double-counting, the
aforementioned 3,000 killings  are deducted here from the 14,000 atrocities, which purport
to include murders.
Miranda, Roger & William Ratliff,  The Civil War in Nicaragua:
Inside the Sandinistas.
"The Sentinel of the People's Happiness."  
Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, 1993. Print.
Moore, John, The Secret War in Central America. " University
Publications of America, Frederick, Maryland, 1987.  Print.
Rohter, Larry. "Nicaragua Now Plans to Look Into Where the
Bodies Are Buried."
The New York Times 6 Nov. 1996, World
sec. 2016. Web. 26 May 2016.
Waller, J. Michael. "Will Sandinistas Face Justice?" Insight on
the News
15.27 (1999). Web. 29 May 2016.
Glazov, Jamie. "The Black Book of the Sandinistas." Frontpage Magazine. N.p., 21
Nov. 2006. Web. 23 June 2016. Available < http://archive.frontpagemag.com/
readArticle.aspx?ARTID=1618
35.
Rigoulot, Pierre,  The Black Book of Communism. "Crimes, Terror, and Secrecy in
North Korea." Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  564. Print.
36.
Statiev, Alexander. "The Borderline Societies in the Interwar Period." The Soviet
Counterinsurgency in the Western Borderlands
. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP,
2010. 49. Print.
37.
Gillet, Kit. "Romania reopens door on brutal communist era." The Christian Science
Monitor
. N.p., 29 Oct. 2013. Web. 3 Apr. 2017.2.
38.
Per historian Stephane Courtois, approximately 20 million U.S.S.R. citizens
were killed under Soviet regimes (4).  Courtois has made an effort to limit his figures
to civilian casualties (4).

In the figures for
Communism at "Peace," several adjustments to Courtois' total
have been made. Initially, the number of deaths is reduced from 20 million to 15
million because 5 million victims of the first famine have been deliberately excluded from
this website's numbers. Those numbers are excluded because a drought was an aggravating
factor in the first famine and because the first famine was indirectly connected to war
conditions. Further adjustments are then made to prevent doublecounting. Thus the
numbers of citizens killed in the
second famine--numbers that are included elsewhere in
this site--are further subtracted, as are the total numbers killed among the clergy and in
the decossackization and dekulakization campaigns. The total then rounds to 8 million.
39.
40.
Excluding military deaths and suicides, The Tibet Post International lists 765,680 Tibetan
deaths. Although Jean Margolin in
The Black Book of Communism casts doubt on the num-
ber of military deaths and total deaths claimed by the Tibetan government (rptd. by Yeshe
Choesang), Margolin's own estimate of a figure as high as 800,000 corroborates the govern-
ment figures when adjusted downward to eliminate military deaths and suicides.  To eliminate
redundancies, the number of village deaths (340,000) is further deducted.  This leaves a rounded
total of 426,000 dissident deaths.
Margolin, J. (1999). "Tibet: Genocide on the Rooftop."
In
The Black Book of Communism (2nd ed., p. 546.
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Margolin, J. (1999). "Tibet: Genocide on the Rooftop." In The Black Book of
Communism
(2nd ed., p. 544. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
41.
The number 25,000 is given by Michael Lavers of the Washington Blade, who writes of "labor
camps to which the government sent more than 25,000 gay men and others deemed unfit for
military service," while Michael Z. Wise, former Reuters foreign correspondent, writes in the
New York Times of "thousands of homosexuals [who] were sent to concentration camps in the
late 1960s, together with others deemed deviant." The highest estimate appears in the
Advocate,
where writer  Odalys Nanin puts the number of [specifically] gays in UMAP at 60,000 although
her numbers are so inconsistent with other available figures as to be dubious.
42.
Wise, Michael Z. "In Totalitarian Cuba, Ice Cream and
Understanding." Movies.
New York Times 22 Jan. 1995.
Web. 29 June 2016
Lavers, Michael K. "Cuban LGBT Activists Cite Progress,
Ongoing Harassment."
Washington Blade 17 Sept. 2012.
Web. 2 July 2015
45.
Judah, S. (2012, Jun 07). "Pink persecution flourished under red flag." The
[London]Times
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/
1018964850?accountid=11259
47.
Bernstein, R. (2003, Jun 16). "In eastern germany, 1953 uprising
is remembered."
New York Times Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com/docview/432426639?accountid=11259
While precise figures are not known, The New York Times indicates a broad estimate of
between 25 and 300 people.  160 is merely a rounded average.
48.
Fontaine, Pascal. "Communism in Latin America: The Sandanistas and the Indians."
Trans. Array
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. 4th.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. 668. Print.
rptd.by Nicolas Werth in The Black Book of Communism. "The
Dirty War." Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  88. Print.
Werth contends that the number of strikers killed by the Bolsheviks was between 2,000 and  
4,000. Three thousand is listed as an average.
52    
53.
Dispute involved strikers in approximately 24 factories in the summer of 1975 in Hangzhou.
Forster, Kieth rptd. by Sheehan, Jackie. Chinese Workers: A New His-
tory
. 2nd edition. London, New York: Routledge, 2002. 146. Print.
54.
Fontaine, Pascal. "Communism in Latin America: Cuba--Interminable Totalitarianism in
the Tropics" Trans. Array
The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression.
4th. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001. 650. Print.
55.
Cuban Democratic Directorate, . "U.S. labor leaders appeal to Castro to release imprisoned
trade unionists: Cuban Workers Given Lengthy Jail Sentences For Efforts to Form Free
Trade Unions ."
Directorio. Directorio Democrático Cubano, 2006. Web. 17 Jan 2015.
<http://www.directorio.org/pressreleases/ note.php?note_id=1047>.
Notes
56.
Halpin, Tony. "Gulags Reveal Awful Secrets." The Australian. N.p., 18 July 2011.
Web. 13 Aug. 2016. <http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/world/gulags-reveal-awful
-secrets/story-e6frg6so-1226096743081>.
57.
Cambodia
Margolin, J. (1999). Cambodia: The Country of Disconcerting Crimes.
In
The Black Book of Communism (2nd ed.), p. 603. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press.
China
Jisheng, Yang  (2008). Tombstone: The Great Chinese Famine, 1958-1962.
p. 41. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
North Korea
Struck, Doug. "Opening a Window on North Korea's Horrors." The Washington
Post
. N.p., 04 Oct. 2003. Web. 16 Aug. 2016.
Soviet Union
Lukov, Yaroslav. "Ukraine marks great famine anniversary." BBC Online  22 Nov. 2003.
26 Aug. 2016. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3229000.stm>
58.
Bartosek, Karel, The Black Book of Communism. "The
Other Europe: Central and Southeastern Europe." Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  421. Print.
59.
Cambodia
Margolin, J. (1999). Cambodia: The Country of Disconcerting Crimes.
In
The Black Book of Communism (2nd ed.), p. 610-611. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press.
China
Margolin, Jean-Louis,  The Black Book of Communism.
"China: A Long March into Night." Harvard University
Press, Cambridge, 1999.  492. Print.
Home
Courtois, Stephane, The Black Book of Communism. "Introduction:
The Crimes of Communism." Harvard University Press, Cambridge,
1999.  4. Print.
Shearer, David. Policing Stalin's Socialism: Repression
and Social Order in the Soviet Union
, 1924‑1953.
“The Mechanics of Mass Purging” Yale University Press,
2009. 344. Print.
60.