Snyder, Timothy. "Hitler vs. Stalin: Who Killed More?"  The New York
Review of Books
58.4 (2011): n. pag. Web. 19 Nov. 2016.
Ghosh, Palash. "How Many People Did Joseph Stalin Kill?" International
Business Times
. 5 March 2013. Web. 19 Nov. 2016
This figure includes only urban dwellers killed in the countryside during the Great Leap Forward and does not
purport to be comprehensive (Wang 270).  It is important to note that these deaths were
not the result of
drought; they were primarily the result of governmental malfeasance and, secondarily, systemic failure of the
Marxist imposition on agriculture.  Please note the following (also available in annotation 2):

  • According to journalist Yang Jisheng, the famine was "a tragedy unprecedented in world
history for tens of millions of people to starve to death and to resort to cannibalism during a period of
normal climate patterns with no wars or epidemics" (14).
  • One witness reported that literally tons of fruit were rotting in 1959 although the State
issued the order "absolutely no opening the granary door even if people are dying of star-
vation" (Chang and Halliday 429-430).
  • The State exported 7 million tons of grain from 1958-1959, which would have provided
840 calories per day for 38 million people--easily the difference between life and death
(Chang and Halliday 429-430).
  • Chang and Halliday also write of, "meat, cooking oil, eggs, and other foodstuffs that were
exported in very large quantities.  Had this food not been exported (and instead distributed
according to humane criteria), very probably not a single person in China would have had
to die of hunger" (430).
Chang, Jung, and Jon Halliday. The Unknown Mao. New York:
Anchor, 2006. 429-430. Print.
Jisheng, Yang. Tombstone. Trans. Stacy Mosher and Guo Jian. Ed.
Edward Friedman, Guo Jian, and Stacy Mosher. New York: Farrar,
Straus and Giroux, 2012. 14 Print.  
Wang Weizhi, Contemporary Chinese Population,.Xu Dixin, editor.
Reported by Jasper Becker. In
Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine.
New York: The Free Press, 1996. 270. Print.
Iliesiu, Sorin. Signatories to the Appeal for the International
Condemnation of the Criminality and Illegitimacy of Comm-
unism, Open Letter to The United Nations · The Parliamentary
Assembly of the Council of Europe · Civil Society in the Former
Communist Countries. : Attached Report. 7. Nov. 2006. Web.
2 Jan. 2017.
Bartosek, Karel, The Black Book of Communism. "The
Other Europe: Central and Southeastern Europe." Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1999.  421. Print.